Core Ideas That Guide Our Work

An Intentional Focus on Higher Learning

Some may view teaching and learning through a conceptual lens that sees, but confuses, them as one and the same. Using that lens, we might assume the following: if teaching occurs, learning happens. But this is a particularly blurry form of tunnel vision that reflects a serious narrowing and clouding of higher education’s purpose; it assumes that the purpose of colleges and universities is to teach, while, in fact, it is for students to learn.

There are different kinds of learning, though we use the word “learning” interchangeably for all of them. A student can get through college by memorizing, absorbing content knowledge in one or more fields (say history, environmental science, mathematics, or psychology), and repeating back information given by professors convincingly enough to merit a passing grade. To call that process learning suggests that learning, at a very basic level, just means knowing something that you did not know before, and knowing it for long enough to pass the test.

Things “learned” in that way may, or may not, “stick.” But there is a different kind of learning — the kind we should expect of higher education. Experiments in the psychology and neuroscience of learning show that learning that “sticks” — the kind that leads to the changes we expect of college, what we call higher learning — requires rich engagement with new material, not just memorization, and that the outcome of this engagement is a change in the mind — a change in how one thinks and makes sense of the world. We “see” that change when students develop greater depth of understanding, can apply their new knowledge in the world, can describe a new perspective, or show new personal, social, or civic maturity. That change in the mind is not just an abstraction; we now know from brain research that learning has flesh-and-blood correlates. We change our minds because something has changed in our brains as a result of a learning experience. This is what students seek through higher education.

Beyond jobs and greater economic opportunity, we have come to count on higher education for a more subtle, idiosyncratic, and even mysterious process of development and change in students, something that transcends the acquisition of greater earning power and long-term growth in wealth potential: the intellectual, personal, and social emergence of a human being. These are the powerful changes that truly define the goals of higher learning.

The kind of higher learning we advocate requires that students be full and engaged participants in a powerful intellectual, social, and developmental process requiring rigorous self-discipline, effort, and commitment; demanding teachers; an inspiring, motivating, and diverse curriculum; and an intentionally designed challenging and supportive learning environment. It is a kind of learning that requires the attainment of substantial knowledge, conceptual understanding, critical thinking, communication skills, various ways of knowing, compassion, moral integrity, and a genuine sense of humility. The kind of learning we believe in teaches content, but also emphasizes the importance of imagination, meaning-making, and connecting and synthesizing information. It involves the ability to think critically and solve problems, to judge what is relevant, what is accurate, and what is morally right.

Higher learning is not the result of the simple accretion of courses or credit hours or simply retaining students to graduation. Rather it is the cumulative effect of a pervasive culture of engagement that rejects the passive reception of knowledge as defining higher education. And engagement is more than keeping students busy; it is about purposefully reflecting, researching, writing, speaking and connecting intellectually and emotionally with their studies.

Understanding the Purpose and Inter-related Functions of Higher Education

Intentional Systemic Focus on Learning Across the Academy

  • To promote higher learning, institutions must themselves change; barriers to higher learning must be addressed, and assessment must guide change. (See: Keeling, Richard (2004), Editor. Learning Reconsidered: A Campus-Wide Focus on the Student Experience. PDF, 520k
  • The purpose of institutional change is to strengthen learning.
  • Strategic planning is the intentional process of guiding institutional change.

Understanding and Applying What We Now Know About Learning

  • Higher learning is not just tertiary educcumulativeandcollectiveation; it is qualitatively different from primary and secondary education. Higher learning is developmental and transformative. The student who graduates is not [and should not be] the same as the one who enrolled — transformation should occur; perspectives should change. (See: Keeling, Richard (2009). Learning as Transformation: Resourcefulness and Renewal in Higher Education. Journal of College & Character X [3].)
  • Learning is a brain-based, physical process that occurs in a whole human being. Learning = change in the brain.
  • Higher learning embraces but transcends content comprehension; it is holistic and integrative.
  • Higher learning occurs horizontally, across the student experience, inside and outside the classroom. The most critical intended learning outcomes are cumulative, collective, and horizontal — so the assessment of achievement of those outcomes (and, therefore, of the learning experiences that generate them) must be cumulative, collective, and horizontal as well.
  • Higher learning requires more effort (time on task) by both students and educators.
  • Higher learning demands tight coupling of learning experiences and of the structures and processes of learning (curriculum, pedagogy, assessment).
  • Higher learning is developmental; it is environmentally dependent and demands adaptations, and it requires being thrown off balance.
  • The learner matters in the learning; readiness to learn is a complex construct that influences persistence, achievement, learning, and success. A focus on higher learning
    requires attention to students’ readiness to learn. Learning, and the assessment of learning, are always influenced by the well-being of learners.

The Importance of Systemic Assessment of Learning

  • Assessment is the intentional proc width=ess of helping students learn; it is to the institution as learning is to the student — it enables change.
  • Assessment is not an add-on. It is an intrinsic, integrated, organic, part-of learning.
  • Assessment requires 1) determining what we think is important for students to learn, 2) communicating that clearly and transparently, and 3) helping students learn how to seek, use, and internalize assessment processes and results.
  • Assessment is a rigorous, structured process of observation designed to recognize evidence of learning; that evidence might exist in any of several “domains.” It is how institutions judge the value of learning experiences. Effectiveness in learning is not assessed by grades or measures of institutional performance alone. In assessing student learning, precision, specificity, and practicality are essential. (See: Keeling, R.P., Wall, A.F., Underhile, R.U., and Dungy, G.J. (2008). Assessment Reconsidered: Institutional Effectiveness for Student Success. Washington, DC: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators.)
  • Pluralism in assessment is essential; it is not possible to assess every kind, quality, and quantity of learning in every setting in the same way.
  • The assessment of cumulative, collective learning outcomesacross the diversity of learning experiences in higher education, through a plurality of methods, enables learners and supports institutional effectiveness.